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a) Tables and Graphs
In most school investigations, the evidence/data is recorded on a results table.
To draw a good results table:
How much evidence do I need?
*As a guide, you must collect enough evidence to help you draw a chart and identify a meaningful pattern.
The results table
*Your table should show both the dependent and independent variables.
General guidance for results tables
This may seem silly, but some students mistake a table and a graph. So that you do not forget, think of a table as used at home- it has a horizontal flat surface and vertical legs. So is a table in science it has horizontal lines marking rows and vertical lines marking the columns.
Exam standard tables have to meet these requirements:
*Ruled lines and a border
e.g. 'time' and 'time taken' are not enough. Instead use: 'time taken to complete the exercise (min)'
-There should be no units inside the table! You have already put them in the headings, so why repeat? Waste of time!
*Do not mix units in the table, for example, seconds and minutes.
Naming the variables on the table
i. For objects and things that can be counted individually- use Number of ...
*Avoid using terms that are imprecise like ... size of ... Size can be measured using different dimensions e.g. height, mass, area, volume etc. so the examiner does not know which one you mean.
Figure 2 below summarises how you should present your table:
2. Graphs and Charts
Why should we draw a graph or Chart?
What kind of graph should I draw Miss/ Sir?
This is indeed one of the most common questions students ask during investigations or controlled assessments. Unfortunately Sir can't tell you the answer during controlled assessments. The answer is not in Sir or Miss's head, let us work it out and you will never ask this question again.
* Graphs are drawn according to one's judgement as to what chart or graph will best show what they want to show. We can use the independent variables as guidelines to help us.
If your independent variable is:
So with these 'rules of thumb', the answer is no longer in Sir's head but in ours. The key is in identifying which one is your independent variable and checking if it is categoric or continuous.
Below is an example of how to draw and present a line graph: